Infertility Tests for Women
There is no single best test for infertility. Doctors use a variety of ways to identify any problems that might help cause fertility trouble.
*You may get a Pap smear. It can detect cervical cancer, other problems with the cervix, or sexually transmitted diseases. Any of these can interfere with getting pregnant.
Your doctor may ask you to take a urine test at home for luteinizing hormone, or LH. This hormone shows up in high levels just before you ovulate.
*Your doctor may also run tests on your thyroid, or check for other hormonal problems, to rule out conditions that might cause missed or irregular ovulation.
Tests of Reproductive Organs
Before you can get pregnant, your uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries all need to work right. Your doctor may suggest different procedures that can check the health of these organs:
Hysterosalpingogram (HSG). Also called a “tubogram,” this is a series of X-rays of your fallopian tubes and uterus. The X-rays are taken after your doctor injects liquid dye through the vagina. Another method uses saline and air instead of dye and an ultrasound.
The HSG can help you learn if your fallopian tubes are blocked or if you have any defects of your uterus. The test is usually done just after your menstrual period.
Transvaginal ultrasound. A doctor places an ultrasound “wand” into the vagina and brings it close to the pelvic organs. Using sound waves, he’ll be able to see images of the ovaries and uterus to check for problems there.
Hysteroscopy. Your doctor puts a thin, flexible tube — with a camera on the end — through the cervix and into the uterus. He can see problems there and take tissue samples if needed.
Laparoscopy. Your doctor makes small cuts in your belly and inserts tools, including a camera. This surgery can check your entire pelvis and potentially correct problems, such as endometriosis, a disease that affects the uterus.
Other Infertility Tests
*A doctor may order other tests to check for fertility problems.
*You may get a blood test to check your levels of follicle-stimulating hormone, or FSH, which triggers your ovaries to prepare an egg for release each month. High FSH can mean lower fertility in women. The FSH blood levels get checked early in your menstrual cycle (often on day 3).
*Your doctor may also recommend an endometrial biopsy. In this procedure, he takes a sample of tissue from the lining of your uterus. But evidence is mounting that endometrial biopsy is not helpful in predicting or treating infertility.
You may not need to have all these tests. Your doctor can discuss with you which ones are best in your situation. After the testing is done, about 85% of couples will have some idea about why they’re having trouble getting pregnant.